Рубрики: REVIEWS
Аннотация и ключевые слова
Аннотация (русский):
The paper discusses the dynamics of the outer electron belt, adiabatic and nonadiabatic mechanisms of replenishment and losses of energetic electrons. Under undisturbed conditions, the outer electron belt gradually empties: in the inner magnetosphere due to electron precipitation in the atmosphere and in the quasi-trapping region due to losses at the magnetopause because drift shells of electrons are not closed there. The latter process does not occur in normal years due to the masking replenishment by freshly accelerated particles, but in years of extremely low activity it leads to a significant decrease in the electron population of the belt. During the magnetic storm main phase, the first reason for the decrease in the electron flux intensity is the adiabatic cooling associated with conservation of adiabatic invariants and complemented by precipitation of electrons into the atmosphere and their dropout at the magnetopause. Electron flux increases involve EB electron injection by the induction electric field of substorm activation and by the large-scale solar wind electric field, with pitch energy diffusion along with adiabatic heating in the recovery phase. The rate of electron flux recovery after a storm is determined by the ratio of nonadiabatic increases and losses; hence the electron flux represents a continuous series from low to very high values. The combination of these processes determines the individual character of radiation belt development during each magnetic storm and the behavior of the belt in the quiet time.

Ключевые слова:
magnetosphere, electrons, radiation belt, replenishment and losses.
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